Quick update: It seems that the source image is corrupt. When we run jpeginfo against it we get the following warning:
$ jpeginfo -c publicViewAttachment.do.jpg
publicViewAttachment.do.jpg 1051 x 714 24bit Exif N 283920 Corrupt JPEG data: premature end of data segment [WARNING]
We insert jpeg images into pdfs unaltered and it seems that acrobat, unlike other software, can't handle this one.
Are you able to fix the image?